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Posts Tagged ‘mobile’

Native Languages are Best for Mobile Development

Monday, July 14th, 2014

Like it or not your clients want mobile and if you are a developer without experience in this realm you are behind the curve.

Having been mobile-centric for the past three years of my professional life, I have heard all of the different lines of thought around toolsets and approaches for creating software targeting these devices. Moreover, I’ve lived through a lot of those toolsets and approaches, and have spent time thinking about which worked well and which ones, well… sucked.

It all boils down to this:

Build native apps using the tools and languages provided by your platform.

Yes, this is the same position I held when I wrote about this almost two years ago, but I stand by it. I’ve had a chance to play and build with the likes of Adobe Air, PhoneGap/Cordova, SenchaTouch and Xamarin, but I always end up going back to Java (Android) or Objective-C (iOS) because…

Cross-Platform Isn’t Good for Anybody

Your app is iOS only… are your installed customers complaining about it not being on Android? No! Why would they care?

When talking about a new project one of the first things to come up is the idea of using X tool so we can build to a lot of platforms after writing the code once. I guess the thinking behind this is somewhere along the lines of “if we make our product available to more people, then it follows that more people will obtain it and we will make more money”. I don’t buy this.

Look at it this way – you’re up against a million apps. What sets you apart? How do you communicate that to all of your potential customers? Are downloads from the Windows Store equivalent to downloads from Google Play? Do they use their phones in the same way and monetize the same way? Are the demographics the same?

If everyone was the same, it would still be a bad idea to build your app around a cross-platform framework. Invariably these work in a lowest-common-denominator fashion meaning you get universal support by trading off native features. Yes, your app runs the same on all the platforms, but Android users are accustomed to navigating using their back button, which iPads don’t have. Instead of providing beautiful context-sensitive navigation using activities for Android and NavigationController hierarchies for iOS, you get uniform views.

“Universal” is a Lie

Okay, so most development kits come with a way to plug in your own native code for the device-specific goodness (better GPS, camera gestures, whatever). Now you’re writing native code anyway, and you’re on the hook to support all those platforms. So why would you want to go through the pain of hooking all that into a cross-platform tool instead of going directly to your platform in the first place.

Worse, your universal framework has bugs. I’m sure it’s great software but all software has bugs. When you hit a bug that stops you from moving forward, what are you going to do? When the underlying operating system software changes and your framework hasn’t been updated yet, are you not going to deploy until the author gets around to supporting the new requirements? When you choose a cross platform tool you are choosing someone else’s opinions and priorities and ceding control of your own product.

My recommendation is to pick a release target and excel at it. Will it be in the Apple ecosystem? If so, don’t be afraid to go all in. Learn how iPhone users are going to interact with your software and do everything you can to speak to them, please them, and turn them into paying customers. They don’t want a great Android experience, they want software they don’t even think about. They won’t patiently deal with your buggy software because you were so afraid of missing out on customers that you greedily deployed a boring app just to support some other platform. The “smaller” number of users is still a lot of users!

I get the fear factor, but the cross-platform tools are designed to make life easier for developers, not customers. The developer isn’t buying my product – I don’t care so much if he’s worried about synchronizing features in a future Android port of the app.

Speed is King

I want my app to load fast and I don’t want to wait around for it. You can’t get more performance than a well-written app build from native languages and tools. Don’t be afraid of XCode, Visual Studio and IntelliJ – embrace them and enjoy the barebones software you can build with them.

Thinking in New Paradigms

Suppose you do want to put your app on two different kinds of devices. Now you need to maintain your program logic in two programming languages, adding new features and squashing bugs in both places. That’s not really such a bad thing.

What if you have an ENORMOUS code base with hundreds of thousands of lines of code – how will you ever keep that synchronized between two development tracks? Well, you might a good candidate to actually use one of those cross-platform tools. Or you might be asking yourself if your work load is really appropriate for a mobile experience (something they won’t tell you — not every app belongs on a mobile device).

Apps don’t need to behave the same on different device formats. Every modern operating system has a different focus and enormous capability list that becomes adopted by its users – so evaluate what it is really like to use your app on each device. Especially for UI stuff – do you need backward navigation on Android when there is a hardware button for that? What buttons can you eliminate on iOS in favour of multi-touch gestures?

In the past 5 years I’ve added Java, Scala, Ruby, JavaScript (specifically, Node.js-style callbacks), Objective-C and lately Swift to the list of languages I’ve used extensively and thought deeply about. Each one has challenged me to look at programming differently and apply new practices to older thought patterns. Working withing multiple native environments is not a hindrance, it’s a huge boost to the quality of software you can create.

Streamlined Learning

When you use a cross-platform tool, you have an extra learning curve – that of the tool itself. I don’t buy into the thought that it improves your productivity, but I definitely see where it decreases your productivity. You need to be aware of bugs in your tool (as we mentioned earlier, your tool is great but it’s still software and software has bugs), you need to be aware of the capabilities of your tool including all the new features they add (which, by the way, just expose native features you should have been working with directly all along).

If you can avoid it, skip the cross-platform stuff and go right to your actual platform.

Putting it all together

As a programmer your job is not about writing code, it’s about connecting businesses with their objectives. A good technologist doesn’t get caught up in ideology over which approach they ought to take to build software – they decide which implementation detail will get them to their goal. So if a cross platform tool makes sense for your project, use it. Just be sure that you’re picking the right tool, and not the comfortable (for now) one

Observations From Mobile Development

Monday, September 10th, 2012

With just a single mobile release under my belt now, I’m hardly what you might call an expert on the subject. What I can say for certain is the past year has been an eye opener in terms of understanding the capabilities and limitations of mobile platforms in general.

So having gone from “reading about” to “doing” mobile development, these are some of the “aha” moments I’ve had:

Design for Mobile First
The biggest revelation: Even if you’re not setting out to develop a mobile application, your design absolutely must start from the point of view of a handheld.

Think about it for a second – how much information can you fit on a 3.5″ screen? Not much! So when you design for that form factor you have to go through a savage trimming exercise – everything from type, to layout, to navigation must communicate their intent in as tiny a space as possible. In other words, there’s no avoiding the need to effectively communicate your message.

When you build all of your applications this way, mobile or not, it’s hard not to come up with a user experience that has laser focus and goes straight for the mark. Once you have a bare minimum experience, now you can augment it with additional navigation and information (including advertising) for larger form factors like desktop and tablets.

Don’t Fret the Framework
Just as in web development, frameworks are powerful tools that come with sometimes painful trade-offs. Especially when you’re getting started, don’t worry about which framework you choose – just pick the one that caters most to the style of development you’re already familiar with and jump in. If that means Adobe Air for ActionScript, cool. If it means PhoneGap for JavaScript, great.

Most of the new devices coming onto the market have more than enough memory and processing horsepower to handle the massive extra overhead incurred through cross-platform development tools. If you’re starting a new project or iterating a prototype, don’t hesitate to jump on board a tool that will get you to a product faster. This is one of those areas where the short term gain is worth the longer term pain…

Native Wins
We’ve known since the 80s, when developers had to release to a boatload of PC platforms – IBM, Commodore, Amiga, Tandy, etc – that software written directly for a particular platform outperforms and outsells similar software written for a generic platform and ported across to others. The same idea is definitely the case now, even though our cross-platform tools are far more advanced, and our globally-usable app much higher in quality that what we could produce 30 years ago.

Some of the compelling reasons why you would want to take on the expense of building, testing and maintaining you app natively:

  • The UI of your application will integrate seamlessly into the underlying operating system – iOS widgets look like they belong, Android layouts are laid out consistently compared to other applications
  • Raw speed – you don’t need to go through someone else’s API shim to get at the underlying operating system features, you don’t have to develop custom native code since all the code is native; all CPU cycles are devoted to your application, resulting in much higher performance, particularly for graphic-intensive applications
  • Operating system features – each mobile operating system has its own paradigm and set of best practices which cross-platform tools gloss over to give you as a developer a consistent response. So your application misses the subtleties of the user’s hardware experience – for example Android uses Activities as its interaction model, but the Adobe Air framework squashes that instead of forcing developers to program in an Activity-centric way

In other words, cross-platform tools exist in order to give developers the best experience, not to give the user the best experience. Your customer doesn’t care if your app is available on Android, Windows, iPhone, Playbook and WebOS if all they have is an iPhone.

I believe cross-platform tools are the best way to get your project off the ground and usable fast, but right from the beginning you need to be thinking about converting your application to native code in order to optimize the experience for your customers.

Market Fragmentation
I bought an Android phone and have been enjoying developing for it. But I don’t think I would enjoy developing for Android at large because of the massive amount of devices and form factors I would need to support. This is where Apple has an edge – although the learning curve for Objective-C is higher, once I have an iOS application, I know it will run on an iPod Touch, and iPhone or and iPad. Not only that, but my guess is people are more likely to want to spend small amounts of money on app purchases, since they’ve been trained to do so from years of iTunes.

Backward Compatibility
Moving to the web was a huge advantage in terms of software support because if you ever found a bug in your program you could patch it and release it without affecting any of your users. No one has to upgrade a web page.

This isn’t true of mobile applications – ignoring mobile web applications – once someone downloads your app they may be slow to upgrade to newer verions, or they may never upgrade at all. This means any bugs that get released with your bundle are going to remain in the wild forever. If you have any kind of server-based presence, your server code needs to handle requests from all of those old app versions – so you need to make sure you get it right, and have good filtering and upgrade mechanisms in place.

Choosing a Platform
One thing that held me back from diving into mobile development was my hesitation to start. This is totally my fault – instead of just programming for WebOS when I had the Palm Pre, I thought it would be better/more accessible to use a more open JavaScript toolset so I could deploy my app to other phones. But really, what would have been the point? I only had a Palm Pre to run my software on and I definitely wasn’t going to buy new hardware to test other versions. Instead of getting locked in analysis paralysis I should have just started programming for the Pre right away and transferred those skills to a more mainstream platform later.

So if you don’t have a smartphone, go get one – it will change your life, or at least the way you interact with your phone. Then start building apps for it. That’s all it takes to get into the game. Don’t wait another second.

Pint-Sized Mobile Devices

Thursday, April 28th, 2011

Lately I’m fascinated by the Dell Streak and am thinking it would be fun to get one. But really, what is the use case? Do tablets have a place in everyday life?

The tablet computer is an interesting device because it fills that no-man’s land between the phone and the computer, and has so much potential as a conveyor of meta experience to users of the other platforms.

The problem so far is no manufacturer has provided compelling reasons why we should be buying tablets and adding them into our routines. It’s almost as if everyone is blindly following Apple’s lead regardless of whether doing so makes sense. Now we have a flood of iPad-like devices, where the original iPad is, let’s be honest, interesting but not really useful.

My prediction: There is going to be a killer app for tablets and it is going to be immediately obvious to everyone why we need to use this medium. In the meantime, developers with mobile programming skill are going to be writing their own ticket – so learn how to build apps for Windows Phone, Android, iOS, or (to a lesser extent) WebOS.